إمكانية وصول الأشخاص ذوي الإعاقة

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Home » Position Paper on Abortion in Jordan

Position Paper on Abortion in Jordan

Source: 
Higher Population Council
Authors: 
Higher Population Council
Geographic Area: 
Nationall
Year Published: 
2018
Funded By: 
Higher Population Council
Type of research: 
Qualitative&Quantitative
Objectives: 

Illegal induced abortion is a controversial issue in locally and globally and takes three key dimensions; the first supports safe abortion due to the risks which the woman may face if she seeks clinical abortion when legal abortion is not available. The second is religious dimension that safeguards the right of the fetus to live with dignity and criminalizes adultery and that illegal abortion indirectly encourages the spread of indecency in society. The third dimension, is represented in the UN sustainable development goals which consider that the provision of safe and legal abortion is essential to ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health care (SDG target 3.7).

Abstract: 

The World Health Organization defines abortion as the loss of the fetus before it completes 20 weeks of gestation or when it weighs less than 500 grams[1]. On the other hand, Islamic Sharia defines abortion as “the expulsion of a dead or alive fetus from the womb of the pregnant woman by the woman herself or another person before the completion of the pregnancy period and after the features of fetus has partially taken shape rendering it unable to survive[2]. According to the World Health Organization, unsafe abortion as the act of terminating a pregnancy by people lacking the necessary skills, or in an environment lacking minimal medical standards, or both [3].

 

In Jordan, there are different forms of abortion including the spontaneous natural abortion (uninduced miscarriage) resulting from chromosomal abnormalities or disorders, defective implantation of the fertilized egg to the uterine wall, a defect in the internal reproductive system, due to congenital malformation of the womb, severe diseases affecting the mother such as fevers, chronic diseases affecting the mother and the child such as diabetes, kidney disease, different infections affecting the mother and child, German measles, mycoplasma, syphilis, emotional trauma, use of certain types of medicine and toxins (not for abortion purposes), accidents and bruises that affect the mother. 

The second type of abortion in Jordan is induced abortion including legal abortion (for medical reasons) which is usually performed to remove a dead fetus from the womb, to save the life of the mother, or if the continuation of the pregnancy causes complications or congenital defects which prevent the infant from surviving after birth (requires a decision of a specialized medical committee and / or a fatwa). In most cases, abortion is safe because it is performed in a public hospital under the supervision of a medical committee that determines that the abortion is required for the mother’s health. Among the cases which the Ministry of Health deals with are (silent abortion, Potter’s syndrome, renal agenesis, Anencephaly, Eisenmenger’s syndrome, Cardiomyopathy, cyanotic heart defect, third- and fourth-degree heart deficiency, pulmonary hypertension, Marfan syndrome, acute mitral and aortic valve stenosis).

Induced abortion could also be illegal abortion usually performed upon the request of the expectant mother for no medical reason to terminate the unwanted pregnancy either for the purpose of family planning, adultery, rape or incest. Since this type of abortion is forbidden by law, it is usually performed in secrecy and is often unsafe and carried out by people who lack the necessary skills or in an environment that does not meet the minimum medical standards, or both. It could also involve the use of dangerous methods by untrained people like inserting strange objects or using traditional procedures. In these cases, complications such as failure to remove all tissues from the womb, severe bleeding, infection, inflammation, rupture of the womb due to the use of blunt objects, injuries to the reproductive system and internal organs increase. When these complications occur, they are not immediately referred to hospitals for fear of exposure and criminal liability of the mother and the people who performed the procedure, since hospitals are required to report these cases to authorities, and therefore these complications are difficult to address and treat.

Illegal induced abortion is a controversial issue in locally and globally and takes three key dimensions; the first supports safe abortion due to the risks which the woman may face if she seeks clinical abortion when legal abortion is not available. The second is religious dimension that safeguards the right of the fetus to live with dignity and criminalizes adultery and that illegal abortion indirectly encourages the spread of indecency in society. The third dimension, is represented in the UN sustainable development goals which consider that the provision of safe and legal abortion is essential to ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health care (SDG target 3.7).